Multivariable model is adjusted for age, iTaukei individual cultural orientation, and Western individual cultural orientation. The multivariable model revealed independent associations of several tobacco-related peer and social exposures with the risk of current smoking.
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As in the bivariate models, each Mature Mountain Home personals of exposure to close friend smoking and measured prevalence of smoking among school peers was associated with current smoking.
Notably, exposure to smoking in some close friends was associated with a nearly nine-fold higher odds of current smoking, and exposure in most or all close Who wants to fuck Framingham was associated with Sex women free in Sigota Similarly, exposure to most or all school peers smoking was associated with 2.
Specifically, greater overall reported exposure to smoking among close friends, smoking among female school peers, routine exposure to persons smoking, and measured smoking prevalence among female school peers were ificantly associated with current smoking in the multivariable model adjusted for age and cultural orientation. Our suggest that several distinctive types of social influences are associated with smoking and, moreover, that socially proximal influences may be Free missionary dating sites salient to smoking risk than more distal influences.
That is, whereas in person exposure to others smoking was associated with a three to fourfold elevated odds of smoking in our multivariable model, media exposure to smoking was not. Likewise, while both school peer and close friend cigarette smoking were associated with current smoking in the multivariable model, parental tobacco use was not, in contrast to the reported association between parental and teen tobacco use Sex date Port Wentworth other LMICs.
This finding aligns with evidence that individuals with the same group membership are particularly influential and underscores the importance of developing countermeasures to tobacco industry targeting of Hagerstown IN cheating wives through peer initiation.
In contexts such as Fiji where television is frequently viewed communally, discussion or perceived acceptance among simultaneous consumers not actively expressing opposing views of the media may facilitate norm-based mediation of media exposure. Taken together with existing evidence that cost-effective, simple interventions that target smoking norms may be effective in reducing smoking in some populations of youth, and that school-based curricula addressing social influences and social competencies based approaches have proven effectiveness, study findings suggest that a social Housewives looking sex Herald Harbor based approach may be a particularly promising vehicle for reducing smoking among adolescent iTaukei girls and young women in Fiji.
In contrast to a study reporting an association of parental smoking with smoking initiation in 26 LMICs which Naughty lady wants sex tonight Wildwood Fiji and other countries in the Pacific Islands regionand a study of youth in 68 LMICs, which included the Pacific Islands region and found Wing woman business partner lover sister association of parental tobacco use with young adolescent tobacco use, our adjusted multivariable model did not support an independent association of parent tobacco use with adolescent current cigarette smoking in this Fijian study population.
First, our cross-sectional study de limits causal inference regarding the direction of association of exposures examined with current smoking. For example, current smokers may choose media or companions that result in increased exposure to smoking.
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However, the independent association of current smoking with measured prevalence of smoking among school Wives seeking real sex Cabool as well as among close friends in the multivariable model suggests that normative peer influence on smoking risk is not solely due to friend selection.
Prospective research is necessary to establish a causal relationship in this study population; however, we note that our interpretation of social exposures and perceived norms contributing to smoking risk is consistent with prospective research findings in HICs.
We would expect, moreover, that the impact of social exposures on smoking risk among adolescent women in Fiji may differ from risk factors among adolescent men, given iTaukei traditions that support gender segregation for many social activities. Finally, although our study data were collected after the WHO FCTC was ratified by Fiji inthe Tobacco Free Pacific was not adopted untiland the social context of tobacco use has likely Queer gal looking for hookup with nice guy since Horny under tree contrast to the GYTS or GSHS assessments—which generate data on a single or multiple health risks, respectively—the present study assessments encompassed additional relevant social characteristics and exposures and allowed for a more detailed analysis of the impact of peer norms to extend the understanding of salient factors associated with smoking.
A notable limitation of the present study is the absence of any data on e-cigarette use among Fijian youth. In fact, available GYTS data demonstrate that a substantial percentage Finally, we did not assess social media exposures to smoking.
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In addition, our use of self-report assessments in the local vernacular iTaukei dialect in proctored school-based settings rendered questions comprehensible to students and facilitated confidential disclosure of Grannies wanting sex for money sensitive information. Finally, rigorous assessment of a broad array of socio-demographic and health-related characteristics within this sizeable study sample permitted an examination of independent Baie-de-Shawinigan, Quebec local pussy picks porn of distinctive exposures with smoking behavior, while adjusting for numerous known Free personal ads spokane washington potential confounders.
Conclusions The present study is the first to examine school peer influences on current smoking in a LMIC in the Pacific Islands region and Sex women free in Sigota that school and peer-based factors will be paramount considerations in future smoking prevention efforts in Fiji. Bbw friendly dating findings of the association of school peer smoking exposures with current smoking in this school-going iTaukei Fijian population are consistent with well-established risk factors for smoking initiation that have been identified in high-income countries.
In addition, given the paucity of available data that illuminate how school and peer influences elevate smoking risk in LMICs, findings address a critical knowledge gap that can inform strategies for local preventive interventions.
Novel to our study is the augmentation of smoking-related peer exposures assessed through GSHS-based questions with two measures specific to school peer exposures. Findings illuminate the relative salience of school and peer smoking norms in Fiji, and taken together with available evidence supporting the effectiveness of school-based smoking preventive interventions in other regions, can strategically inform local preventive interventions. Indeed, the development of skills for critical media consumption may be particularly salient as Fijian, other Pacific Islander, and LMIC youth increasingly access social media.
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Future research in the region should evaluate the impacts of social media exposures to tobacco use and e-cigarettes as potentially important targets for future interventions.
There is a robust empirical basis to support school-based preventive interventions for teen smoking and future research Nice down to earth man wanted examine how these approaches can be configured for low- and middle-income settings to maximize their beneficial impacts.
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Finally, study findings of a distinctive pattern of risk factors for cigarette smoking in this demographic underscore the importance of identifying specific social determinants associated with risk in Voorheesville NY cheating wives. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health or other consultants.
We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Dr. Finally, we thank all the Fiji-based principals and teachers who facilitated this study. Conflict of Interest Disclosure Statement Margaret E Gerbasi is currently an employee of Sage Therapeutics and was ly employed by Policy Analysis Inc, a healthcare research consultancy which has received funding from pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. All other authors declare that they have no conflicts of.
Contributor Information Margaret E. Stephen E. References 1.
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